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Structure & Function of the Heart:

Risk factors for Coronary Artery disease:

Coronary Artery Disease:

Emergency Complications of Heart Attack:

Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG):

Rheumatic Fever and Heart Valve Diseases:

Heart Transplantation and Assisted devices

Important Heart Questions and Answers

Common Drugs Used For Treatment of Heart Diseases

Have your Child been diagnosed with a Congenital Heart Disease??


Symptoms of Coronary Artey Disease (Common complaints of Patients)

The following are the three most common complaints or symptoms of a patient having an atheroscelerotic coronary artery disease: 


Angina pectoris means chest pain. Angina occurs when the heart is called upon to pump more blood to meet the body’s stepped-up needs. To do so means working harder and faster. If one or more of the heart’s supply lines is narrowed by disease, the extra blood and oxygen required to fuel the pump cannot get through to a region of the heart muscle.

Anginal pain is a signal that muscle cells are being strained by an insufficiency of oxygen ; they are, as it were, gasping for air. The attacks usually are brief, lasting only a matter of minutes. Attacks stop when the person rests. Some people apparently can walk through an attack, as if the heart has gotten a second wind, and the pain subsides.

Angina attacks are likely to appear when sudden strenuous demands are placed on the heart. They may come from physical exertion, walking uphill, running, sexual activity, or the effort involved in eating and digesting a heavy meal. Watching an exciting movie or sporting event can trigger it; so might cold weather. An attack can occur even when the individual is lying still or asleep—perhaps the result of tension or dreams. The most obvious characteristic of an angina attack is pain.

Usually the pain is distinctive and feels like a vest being drawn too tightly across the chest. Sometimes it eludes easy identification. As a rule, however, the discomfort is felt behind the breastbone, occasionally spreading to the arms, shoulders, neck, and jaw. Not all chest pain indicates angina; in most cases it may simply be gas in the stomach.

Heart Attack

Heart attack is the common term for myocardial infarction, or death of heart muscle, which is also described as coronary occlusion (total closure of the coronary artery) or coronary thrombosis (formation of a blood clot, which closes the artery. Although heart attacks can occur at any age, the frequency of heart attacks begins to build rapidly between the ages of 30 and 44.

Sometimes heart attacks are so vague or indistinct that the victim may not know he has had one. Often a routine electrocardiogram turns up an abnormality indicative of an infarct, or injured area, thus the importance of periodic checkups. Special blood tests can also detect an elevation in the number of white blood cells or a rise in the enzyme content, resulting from leakage when heart muscle cells are injured. Most heart attacks, however, do not sneak by. There are well recognized symptoms. The most common are:

  • Feeling of strangulation, crushing, or compressing
  • A prolonged, oppressive pain or unusual discomfort in the center of the chest that may radiate to the left shoulder and down the left arm or up the neck into the jaw
  • Abnormal perspiring
  • Sudden, intense shortness of breath
  • Nausea or vomiting (because of these symptoms, an attack is sometimes taken for indigestion, usually, coronary pains are more severe)
  • Occasionally, fainting

Congestive Heart Failure

Heart failure can be on of the complaints of  coronary artery disease. It occurs when the heart’s ability to pump blood has been weakened by disease. To say the heart has failed, however, does not mean it has stopped beating. The heart muscle continues to contract, but it lacks the strength to keep blood circulating normally throughout the body. Physicians sometimes refer to the condition as cardiac insufficiency.

When the heart fails to pump efficiently, the flow slows down, causing blood returning to the heart through the veins to back up. Some of the fluid in the blood is forced out through the thin walls of small blood vessels into surrounding tissues. Here the fluid piles up, or congests.

The result may be swelling, or edema, which can occur in many parts of the body but is most commonly seen in the legs and ankles. Fluids sometimes collect in the lungs, interfering with breathing and making the person short of breath. Heart failure also affects the ability of the kidneys to rid the body of sodium and water. Fluid retained in this way adds to the edema.





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