Structure & Function of the Heart:
Risk factors for Coronary Artery disease:
Coronary Artery Disease:
Emergency Complications of Heart Attack:
Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG):
Rheumatic Fever and Heart Valve Diseases:
Heart Transplantation and Assisted devices
Right Diet For A Healthy Heart and Body
Today we face dietary choices and nutritional challenges that our grandparents never dreamed of such as exotic foreign foods; dietary supplements; artificial sweeteners, no—fat, low-fat, and artificial-fat alternatives; cholesterol-free, high-protein, high carbohydrate, and low- calorie products. Thousands of alternatives bombard us daily Caught in the cross fire of advertised claims by the food industry and advice provided by health and nutrition experts, most of us find it difficult to make wise dietary decisions. just when we think we have the answers, a new re- search study tells us that what we thought was true probably wasn’t.
Eating is one activity that most of us take for granted. We assume that we will have sufficient food to get us through the day and rarely are we forced to eat things that we do not like for the sake of staying alive, In fact, although we have all undoubtedly experienced hunger before meal time, few of us have ever experienced the type of hunger that continues for days and threatens our survival. If our appetite for food is stimulated, we may want to eat something because it looks or smells good, even though we are not actually hungry. Finding the right balance between eating to maintain body functions (eating to live) and eating to satisfy our appetites (living to eat) is a problem for many of us. Social pressures, including family traditions, social events that involve eating, and busy work schedules, can also influence our diets. Although our ancestors typically sat down to three large meals per day, they also labored heavily in the fields or at other work and burned off many of those calories. Today eating three large meals per day combined with an inactive lifestyle is a recipe for weight gain.
Important nutrients for your health and how to use them:
A very Crucial Nutrient. Between 50 and 60 percent of our total body weight is water. The average person can go for weeks without certain vitamins and minerals before experiencing serious deficiency symptoms. Dehydration, however, can cause serious problems within a matter of hours; after a few days without water, death is likely. Water is the major component of the blood, which carries oxygen and nutrients to the tissues and is responsible for maintaining cells in working order. Most experts believe that six to eight glasses of water per day are necessary Because of high concentrations of water in most of the foods we consume, however, the actual number of glasses needed each day is somewhat less than this for the average person. Certain diseases, such as diabetes or cystic fibrosis, cause victims to lose fluids at a rate necessitating a higher volume of fluid intake. Many believe that bottled water is healthier than city water. In most instances, this is not the case. Have your current water source tested if in doubt.
Next to water, proteins are the rnost abundant substances in the human body Proteins are major components of nearly every cell and have been called the "body builders" because of their role in the development and repair of bone, muscle, skin, and blood cells. Proteins are also the key elements of the antibodies that protect us from disease, of enzymes that control chemical activities in the body and of hormones that regulate bodily functions. Moreover, proteins aid in the transport of iron, oxygen, and nutrients to all of the body’s cells and supply another source of energy to body cells when fats and carbohydrates are not readily available. In short, adequate amounts of protein in the diet are vital to many body functions and to your ultimate survival. Whenever you consume proteins, your body breaks them down into smaller molecules known as amino acids, which link together like beads in a necklace to form 20 different combinations. Nine of these combinations are termed essential, meaning that although the body needs them for growth and repair, it must receive them from the diet.
Dietary protein that supplies all of the essential amino acids is called complete (high quality) protein. Typically, protein from animal products is complete. When we consume foods that contain protein but are deficient in some of the essential amino acids, the total amount of protein that can be synthesized from other amino acids is decreased. Plant sources of protein fall into three general categories; legumes (beans, peas, peanuts, and soy products), grains (whole grains, corn, and pasta products), and nuts and seeds. Certain vegetables, such as leafy green vegetables and broccoli, also contribute valuable plant proteins. Mixing two or more foods from each of these categories during the same meal will provide all of the essential amino acids necessary to ensure adequate protein absorption.
Eating too much protein, particularly animal protein, can put added stress on the liver and kidneys. lt also may increase calcium excretion in urine, which can elevate the risk of osteoporosis and bone fractures.The average American consumes more than 100 grams of protein daily, and about 70 percent of this comes from high fat animal flesh and dairy products. The recommended protein intake for the average man is only 63 grams, and the average woman needs only 50 grams. The typical recommendation is that, in a 2,000-calorie diet, about 10 percent of calories should come from protein, 60 percent from carbohydrates, and less than 30 percent from fat. The excess is stored as extra calories, leading to extra fat.
Carbohydrates supply us with the energy needed to sustain normal daily activity In fact, carbohydrates can actually be metabolized more quickly and efficiently than can proteins. Carbohydrates are a quick source of energy being easily converted to glucose, the fuel for the body’s cells. These foods also play an important role in the functioning of the internal organs, the nervous system, and the muscles. There are two major types of carbohydrates: simple sugars, which are found primarily in fruits, and complex carbohydrates, which are found in grains, cereals, dark green leafy vegetables, yellow fruits and vegetables (carrots, yams), and certain root vegetables, such as potatoes. Most of us do not get enough complex carbohydrates in our daily diets.
A typical diet contains large amounts of simple sugars. Controlling the amount of sugar in your diet can be difficult because sugar, like sodium, is often present in food products in which you might not expect to find it. Such diverse items as ketchup, Russian dressing, Coffee-Mate, and Shake ’n’ Bake derive between 30 and 65 percent of their calories from sugar. Reading labels carefully before purchasing food products is a must. Starches are complex carbohydrates and come from flours, breads, pasta, potatoes, and related foods. They are stored in body muscles and the liver in a form called glycogen. When the body requires a sudden burst of energy, it breaks down glycogen into glucose.
The typical recommendation is that, in a 2,000-calorie diet, about 60 percent of calories should come from carbohydrates.
The role fiber plays in promoting nutrition and health has been a controversial subject in recent years. Often referred to as "bulk" or "roughage," fiber is the indigestible portion of plant foods that helps move foods through the digestive system and softens stools by absorbing water. It also helps control weight by creating a feeling of fullness without adding extra calories. ln spite of all the fiber advocates, the average American consumes only about l2 grams of fiber a day, about half the recommended daily amount of 25 grams. Insoluble fiber which is found in bran, whole-grain breads and cereals, and most fruits and vegetables, is associated with these gastrointestinal benefits and has also been found to reduce the risk for several forms of cancer. Soluble fiber appears to be a factor in lowering blood cholesterol levels, thereby reducing risk for cardiovascular disease. Major sources of soluble fiber in the diet include oat bran, dried beans (such as kidney garbanzo, pinto, and navy beans), and some fruits andvegetables.
Benefits of fibers:
Fats (or lipids) are another group of basic nutrients. Fats play a vital role in the maintenance of healthy skin and hair, insulation of the body organs against shock, maintenance of body temperature, and the proper functioning of the cells themselves. Fats make our foods taste better and carry the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K to the cells. They also provide a concentrated form of energy in the absence of sufficient amounts of carbohydrates. Although moderate consumption of fats is essential to health maintenance, over consumption can be dangerous.
The most common form of fat circulating in the blood is the triglyceride, which makes up about 95 percent of total body fat. When we consume too many calories, the excess is converted into triglycerides in the liver, which are stored throughout our bodies.The remaining 5 percent of body fat is composed of substances such as cholesterol, which can accumulate on the inner walls of arteries, causing a narrowing of the channel through which blood flows. This buildup, called plaque, is a major cause of atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries).
Lipoproteins are the transport facilitators for cholesterol in the blood. High-density lipoproteins are capable of transporting more cholesterol than are low-density lipoproteins (LDLs). Whereas LDLs transport cholesterol to the body’s cells, HDLs apparently transport circulating cholesterol to the liver for metabolism and elimination from the body. People with a high percentage of HDLs therefore appear to be at lower risk of cholesterol clogged arteries.
Reducing Fat in Your Diet:
Finding the best ways to cut fat in your diet is largely dependent on you. The following basic guidelines are a good place to start to reduce your fat intake:
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Vitamins are potent, essential, organic compounds that promote growth and help maintain life and health. Every minute of every day vitamins help maintain your nerves and skin, produce blood cells, build bones and teeth, heal wounds, and convert food energy to body energy and they do all of this without adding any calories to your diet. Age, heat, and other environmental conditions can destroy vitamins in food.
Vitamins can be classified as either fat soluble, meaning that they are absorbed through the intestinal tract with the help of fats, or water soluble, meaning that they are easily dissolved in water. Vitamins A, D, E, and K are fat soluble; B complex vitamins and vitamin C are water soluble. Fat soluble vitamins tend to be stored in the body. Water soluble vitamins are generally excreted.
Despite all of the media suggestions to the contrary few Americans suffer from true vitamin deficiencies if they eat a diet containing all of the food groups at least part of the time. Nevertheless, Americans continue to purchase large quantities of vitamin supplements. For the most part, vitamin supple ments are unnecessary and, in certain instances, may even be harmful. Overuse of vitamin supplements can lead to a toxic condition known as hypervitaminosis.
Seven tips to a healthy diet:
1. Eat a variety of foods.
2. Eat at least five servings of fruits and vegetables and three to six servings of whole-grain breads, cereals, and legumes per day throughout the day
3. Eat less processed food.
4. Eat the skins of fruits and vegetables.
5. Get your fiber from foods rather than pills or powders. Pills and powders do not supply enough essential nutrients.
6. Spread out your fiber intake.
7. Drink plenty of liquids—at least 64 ounces of water daily
Symptoms and signs of heart disease:
NonInvasive diagnostic tests For heart disease:
Invasive Diagnostic Tests for heart disease:
Cardiac Arrythmias and Pacemakers:
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