Structure & Function of the Heart:
Risk factors for Coronary Artery disease:
Coronary Artery Disease:
Emergency Complications of Heart Attack:
Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG):
Rheumatic Fever and Heart Valve Diseases:
Heart Transplantation and Assisted devices
Smoking is the single most preventable cause of death in the United States. Nearly 430,000 Americans die each year of smoking related diseases. In addition, 10 million will suffer from diseases caused by tobacco. One in every five deaths in the United States is smoking-related. New studies estimate that about half of all regular smokers die of smoking- related diseases. Therefore, any contention by the tobacco industry that tobacco use is not dangerous is irresponsible and ignores the growing weight of scientific evidence.
In households where one parent smokes, children are 90 percent more likely to take up smoking than are children from households where neither parent smokes. In addition, children whose peers smoke were found to have an 80 percent chance of adopting the habit.
Cigarette smoking in the United States results in untold loss of human potential, with thousands of Americans dying prematurely each year. Today, because of continued population growth, there are 1.5 million more smokers than there were 20 years ago. So clearly, while inroads have been made, the fight continues.
The tobacco industry spends $14 million per day on advertising and promotional materials to keep their products in the public eye. With the number of smokers declining by about 1 million each year, the industry must actively recruit new smokers. Campaigns are directed at all age, social, and ethnic groups, but because children and teenagers constitute 90 percent of all new smokers, much of the advertising has been directed toward them.From 1975 through 1988, cigarette sales to women increased dramatically, particularly among 18 to 20 year old women - the only age group of Americans whose rate of smoking continues to rise.
TOBACCO AND ITS EFFECTS
Tobacco is available in several forms: Cigarettes, cigars, and pipes are used for burning and inhaling tobacco. The chemical stimulant nicotine is the major psycho-active substance in all these tobacco products. When tobacco leaves are burned in a cigarette, pipe, or cigar, nicotine is released and inhaled into the lungs.
Smoking is the most common form of tobacco use. Smoking delivers a strong dose of nicotine to the user, along with an additional 4,000 chemical substances. Among these chemicals are various gases and vapors that carry particulate matter in concentrations that are very much greater than the most air-polluted cities in the world. Particulate matter condenses in the lungs to form a thick, brownish sludge called tar. Tar contains various carcinogenic (cancer-causing) agents such as benzopyrene and chemical irritants such as phenol. Phenol has the potential to combine with other chemicals to contribute to the development of lung cancer.
Nicotine also impairs the cleansing function of the cilia by paralyzing them for up to one hour following the smoking of a single cigarette. Tars and other solids in tobacco smoke are thus allowed to accumulate and irritate sensitive lung tissue.
Tar and nicotine are not the only harmful chemicals in cigarettes. In fact, tars account for only 8 percent of the components of tobacco smoke. The remaining 92 percent is made up of various gases, the most dangerous of which is carbon monoxide. In tobacco smoke, the concentration of carbon monoxide is 800 times higher than the level considered safe by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In the human body, carbon monoxide reduces the oxygen-carrying capacity of the red blood cells by binding with the receptor sites for oxygen. Smoking thus diminishes the capacity of the circulatory system to carry oxygen, causing oxygen deprivation in many body tissues.
The heat from tobacco smoke is also harmful to the smoker. Inhaling hot gases and vapors exposes sensitive mucous membranes to irritating chemicals that weaken the tissues and contribute to the development of cancers of the mouth, larynx, and throat.
Effects of Nicotine
Nicotine is a powerful central nervous system stimulant that produces a variety of physiological effects. Its stimulant action in the cerebral cortex produces an aroused, alert mental state. Nicotine also stimulates the adrenal glands, increasing the production of adrenaline. The physical effects of nicotine stimulation include increased heart and respiratory rate, narrowing of blood vessels, and subsequent increased blood pressure because the heart must work harder to pump blood through the narrowed vessels. Nicotine decreases the stomach contractions that signal hunger. It also decreases blood sugar levels. These factors, along with decreased sensation in the taste buds, reduce appetite. For this reason, many smokers eat less than non- smokers do and weigh, on average, 7 pounds less than nonsmokers.
Beginning smokers usually feel the effects of nicotine with their first puff. These symptoms, called nicotine poisoning, include dizziness, lightheadedness, rapid, erratic pulse, clammy skin, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. The effects of nicotine poisoning cease as soon as adaptation to the chemical develops.
Health Hazards of Smoking
Cigarette smoking adversely affects the health of every person who smokes. Each pack of cigarettes has a warning label alerting smokers to some of the dangers. Smoking has been estimated to be responsible for almost 19 percent of all U.S. deaths each year. Each day cigarettes contribute to over 1,000 deaths from cancer, heart disease, and respiratory diseases.
Hazards of smoking on your heart:
Half of all smoking related deaths occur as a result of some form of heart disease. Smokers have a 70 percent higher death rate from heart disease than nonsmokers do, and heavy smokers have a 200 percent higher death rate than moderate smokers do. In fact, smoking cigarettes poses as great a risk for developing heart disease as high blood pressure and high cholesterol levels do.
Smoking contributes to heart disease by adding the equivalent of l0 years of aging to the arteries. One possible explanation for this is that smoking increases the development of atherosclerosis, the buildup of fatty deposits in the heart and major blood vessels. For unknown reasons, smoking decreases blood levels of high-density lipoproteins, which help protect against heart attacks.
Smoking also contributes to platelet adhesiveness, or the sticking together of red blood cells that is associated with blood clots. The oxygen deprivation associated with smoking decreases the oxygen levels supplied to the heart and can weaken tissues. Smoking also contributes to irregular heart beats, which can lead to a sudden heart attack. Carbon monoxide can precipitate angina attacks (pain spasms in the chest when the heart muscle does not get the blood supply it needs).
Quitting smoking isn’t easy. Stopping smoking requires breaking an addiction and a habit. Smokers must break the physical addiction to nicotine. And they must break the habit of lighting up at certain times of the day. From what we know about successful quitters, quitting is often a lengthy process involving several unsuccessful attempts before success is finally achieved. Even successful quitters suffer occasional slips, emphasizing the fact that quitting smoking is a dynamic process that occurs over time.
Breaking the Nicotine Addiction
Nicotine addiction may be one of the toughest addictions to overcome. Smoker attempts to quit lead to withdrawal symptoms. Symptoms of nicotine withdrawal include irritability, restlessness, nausea, vomiting, and intense cravings for tobacco. Nicotine Replacement Products that replace depleted levels of nicotine in the bloodstream have helped some people stop using tobacco. The two most common nicotine replacement products are nicotine chewing gum and the nicotine patch, both of which are available over the counter. The FDA has recently approved a nicotine nasal spray to help cigarette smokers stop smoking.
The nicotine patch, first marketed in is the hottest method for those attempting to quit smoking. It is generally used in conjunction with a comprehensive smoking behavior cessation program. A small, thin 24-hour patch placed on the smoker’s upper body delivers a continuous flow of nicotine through the skin, helping to relieve the body cravings. The patch is worn for 8 to 12 weeks under the guidance of a physician. During this time, the dose of nicotine is gradually reduced until the smoker is fully weaned from nicotine.
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Symptoms and signs of heart disease:
NonInvasive diagnostic tests For heart disease:
Invasive Diagnostic Tests for heart disease:
Cardiac Arrythmias and Pacemakers:
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