Structure & Function of the Heart:
Risk factors for Coronary Artery disease:
Coronary Artery Disease:
Emergency Complications of Heart Attack:
Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG):
Rheumatic Fever and Heart Valve Diseases:
Heart Transplantation and Assisted devices
Therapeutic cardiac catheterization
Today, catheters are used to both diagnose and treat cardiac disorders. The procedure is usually done on an outpatient basis, and patients who undergo catheterization are often released from the clinic or hospital on the day of the procedure. Diagnostically, the catheter is an important tool that allows doctors to observe the inside of coronary arteries and actually watch the heart at work. The most popular form of diagnostic heart catheter procedure is called coronary angiography.
Cardiac catheters can also be used to treat heart disorders and in this case the procedure is called therapeutic cardiac catheterization. Here are some uses of cardiac catheterization in treatment of heart diseases:
Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty (PTCA)
Involves insertion of a small balloon mounted on a catheter, into the narrowed segment of the artery. Inflation of the balloon at high pressure one or more times is used to open the narrowed segment to make it easier for blood to flow through the artery. Learn more about PTCA .
Coronary artery stent
A thin metal scaffolding mounted on a balloon catheter, is advanced into a narrowed coronary artery. This stent is permanently implanted in the coronary artery after the balloon catheter is inflated. An expanded stent acts as a scaffold within the artery to keep it open. Learn more about coronary artery stents.
Is a non-surgical technique for increasing flow of blood through narrowed or tight heart valves using dilation catheters. This procedure is similar to PTCA. Catheters are inserted from a femoral approach (from the artery in the groin) and advanced to the narrowed valve using fluoroscopic (X-ray) guidance. A dilation catheter is inflated to increase the heart valve opening and improve blood flow. Learn more about balloon valvuloplasty .
Laser Angioplasty (Excimer Laser Coronary Angioplasty, ELCA)
Involves using the insertion of a laser emitting catheter into the narrowed segment of the artery. Once the laser energy is turned on, the plaque is vaporized, thus reducing the blockage of the artery.
Directional Coronary Atherectomy
Involves the use of a small sharp blade housed inside a catheter which is placed against the plaque allowing the doctor to cut and remove part of the plaque from the wall of the artery.
Transmyocardial Laser Revascularization
Transmyocardial laser revascularization is reserved for patients whose arteries are so diseased both upstream and down that bypasses, balloon angioplasties, or stents are no longer an option. In this case, a laser is used to bore tiny holes in the heart muscle itself, in the hope that new blood channels will develop. The lasers can be introduced into the left ventricular cavity through the catheter or directly with surgery.
Treatment of congenital heart birth defects
Catheters are also used to introduce devices that plug some holes between the two atria, or upper chambers of the heart, called atrial septal defects. In some cases, they can plug a patent ductus arteriosus, which is an abnormal vessel connecting the aorta and the pulmonary artery that is present in some children after birth.
Symptoms and signs of heart disease:
NonInvasive diagnostic tests For heart disease:
Invasive Diagnostic Tests for heart disease:
Cardiac Arrythmias and Pacemakers:
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